A pioneer on e-bus. China set out a new energy vehicle program at 2009 to invest on vehicle and infrastructure in 10+ pilot cities. Shenzhen's route to full 100% electric bus fleet yielded valuable insights. Now, the city operates the largest electric bus fleet in the world with more than 16,000 buses.

Shenzhen

Under the emergence of megatrends on global climate change, energy security, urban pollution ,and auto industry growth, in 2009, China has established the targets to have 500,000 electric and hybrid electric vehicles by 2015 and 5 million by 2020.

A New Energy Vehicle Program, ‘Ten Cities, Thousands Vehicles’, was launched in 2009 to plan for 10 pilot cities to develop 1,000 electric vehicles each. The list of cities had expanded further. To encourage the transformation, subsidies were offered by the Central and State Governments to purchase the electric vehicles. The progress was varied among the pilot cities.

Shenzhen was the more successful case. The city has gradually transformed its 16,000 bus fleet to entirely electric at 2018.

Factors for Success

Financial Subsidy
Apart from the subsidy from central Government, Shenzhen government injects RMB500 million every year to support the development of e-bus programme covering e-bus vehicle purchasing, operating and installing charging infrastructure.
Subsidy is provided also for the bus operator and electricity price is controlled.

Timely onsite support
Based in Shenzhen, the bus manufacturer (BYD) is in full cooperation with the Shenzhen Government in producing e-bus to meet the need of the bus operators. As BYD also provides the charging infrastructure, the defects of bus or the charging are sorted out at the spot; downtime is reduced to the minimum.

Infrastructure
Shenzhen Government now building 13 multi-storeys bus depots for charging the e-buses. The target is one “charging gun” per e-bus; and a total of 26 such depot buildings have to be built. The Government also plans to develop e-bus charging network along major routes, targeting at one e-bus charging point per 5 square kilometer.

Environmental Impact

The estimated impact on environment is significant. Shenzhen's annual particulate matters have been reduced annual by over 400 ton since 2016. In additional, there are 160,000 tonnes of coal reserved per year and the annual CO2 emissions is reduced by 440,000 tonnes. Shenzhen emissions from mobile sources to account for over 50% of the total emissions in the city, with diesel vehicles contributing to over 85% of the total PM2.5 emissions from motor vehicles. In tackling the pollution, Shenzhen has fully achieved 100% all-electric vehicles buses and taxis in the city by 2018.

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